Junior Certificate

The core Junior Certificate Subjects available in St Angela’s College are:

English, Irish, Maths, History, Geography, Science, Physical Education, Religion,  S.P.H.E., C.S.P.E. and French or German. The optional subjects are Music, Art, Business Studies, Home Economics.

Leaving Certificate

Here you will find a summary of each of the Leaving Certificate Subjects available in St Angela’s College.

 

BUSINESS

A.   About:

·         Combination of learning, theory and some practical work.

·         Some calculations involved e.g. Taxation.

·         Looking at how businesses are formed, run and financed and the legislation that governs them.

 

B.   Main topics covered?

·         Looks at areas like Enterprise, Banking, Taxation, Management, Marketing,, Semi-state organisations, Trade Unions, HR Management, Multinational Companies, Pay issues, European affairs, Company structures etc.

 

C.   What type of student would do well at this course?

·         A student who has a good memory for accurate and precise information.

·         A student who is good at learning things off.

·         A student who likes answering information in point form.

·         A student who is interested in the areas of business and commerce.

 

D.   What careers is Business a useful subject for?

·         Accountancy, Hotel & Catering, Media, Retail, Marketing, Management, Buying, Advertising, Auctioneering, Hospitality, Law, Sales, Administration, Education etc.

 

E.   Similarities/Differences between Junior and Senior Cycle?

·         Topics such as Insurance, Banking, and Marketing are continued in more detail. No accounting/book keeping except for financial ratio analysis.

 

F.    How is the subject examined in Leaving Certificate?

·         Higher level – 3 hour written paper

·         Ordinary level – 2.5 hour written paper

 

G.   What other school subject/s is it linked to at Leaving Certificate? 

·         Accounting and to a lesser degree, Social & Scientific.

 

H.   What type of skills will it help develop?

·         Memory skills

·         Communication skills

·         Accuracy

·         Planning

·         Enterprise skills

 

I.      What do students like about it?

·         Interesting topics which students can relate to everyday living.

 

J.    What may students find hard about it?

·         There is a lot of learning in this subject.

 

ACCOUNTING

 

A.   About:

·         Record keeping and book keeping.

·         Looking at what these records are used for, their preparation,  analysis and interpretation

 

B.   Main topics covered?

·         Sole Trader, Company, Manufacturing, Club, and Farm service accounts. Cash flow statements. Interpretation of accounts and Management Accounting etc.

 

C.   What type of student would do well at this course?

·         A student who is accurate and precise.

·         A student who liked the bookkeeping aspect of JC Business.

·         A student who works efficiently.

·         A student who likes working with figures, calculations and book keeping.

·         A student who likes learning how to do, rather than learning off.

 

D.   What careers is Accounting a useful subject for?

·         Accounting, Banking, Auditing, Insurance, Financial Services, Education, Management, Taxation, Marketing, Computing, Administration, Hotel Management, Tourism & Travel etc.

·         Any career where you might be likely to set up/run your own business (aspects included in courses such as Food Business / Quantity Surveying / Agriculture etc.)

 

E.   Similarities/Differences between Junior and Senior Cycle?

·         Following on and developing JC Business – Bookkeeping.

 

F.    How is the subject examined in Leaving Certificate?

·         3 hour written exam for Higher and Ordinary level.

 

G.   What other school subject/s is it linked to at Leaving Certificate?

·         Business and Maths.

 

H.   What type of skills will it help develop?

·         Book keeping skills.

·         Accounts knowledge.

·         Money management

 

I.      What do students like about it?

·         It is logical. Things either add up or they don’t.

·         It is practical i.e. learning how to do something. There is also some theory.

·         There is lots of practice of doing questions.

·         It is a good subject to take if you like working with numbers.

 

J.    What may students find hard about it?

·         If you haven’t done JC Business, you need to do your research properly before taking on this subject.

 

CHEMISTRY

A.   About:

·         The composition of matter, their changes and relevance to each other.

·         It involves everything we eat, wear, use etc. including plastics, medicines, preservatives etc.

·         Looking at findings as a result of scientific experiments and investigation.

·         Chemistry exists everywhere not just in laboratories but in every living thing on land and sea and in our bodies.

·         It is often described as ‘the central science’ containing a lot of formulas.

 

B.   Main topics covered – Organic and Inorganic Chemistry

·         Atomic structure, Chemical bonding, Properties of gases, Rates of reaction, Water and Environmental chemistry, the Composition of Matter, the laws of Chemical change, Equations, 28 compulsory experiments etc.

 

C.   What type of student would do well at this course?

·         Students need to be very comfortable with Maths.

 

D.   What careers is Chemistry a useful subject for?

·         Dentistry, Medicine, Dietetics, Food Science, Nursing, Speech Therapy, Forensics, Radiography, Physiotherapy, Engineering, Pharmacy, Veterinary, Education, any Laboratory science area etc.

 

E.   Similarities/Differences between Junior and Senior Cycle?

·         LC Chemistry follows on from JC Science with a lot more topics and in more detail.

 

F.    How is the subject examined in Leaving Certificate?

·         3 hour written paper.

·         Students must also write up all practicals also.

 

G.   What other school subject/s is it linked to at Leaving Certificate?

·         Maths, Physics and Biology.

 

H.   What type of skills will it help develop?

·         Practical skills.

·         Analytical skills.

·         Teaches students attention to detail and logic.

 

I.      What do students like about it?

·         Practical work.

·         Relevant to everyday life.

·         Answers tend to be short and exact.

 

J.    What may students find hard about it?

·         If you miss out on grasping the core concepts early on, it is very hard to build on information.

 

PHYSICS

 

A.   About:

·         The dictionary definition of Physics is ‘the study of matter, energy and the interaction between them’, BUT, what that really means is that Physics is about asking fundamental questions and trying to answer them by observing and experimenting.

·         Physicists ask really big questions like – How does the sun keep on shining? Or.. What are the basic building blocks of nature?

·         If you think these questions are fascinating, then you’ll like Physics!

 

B.   Main topics covered?

·         Light, Sound, Waves, Electricity, Mechanics (measuring velocity, acceleration etc.) Modern Physics (which includes particle physics, radioactivity, x rays, electronics).

·         The skills needed to study Physics are – Drawing graphs – Rearranging formulae – Describing experiments.

 

C.   What type of student would do well at this course?

·         Students who achieve an A or B in honours JC Science and/or Maths would not have a problem with LC Physics (assuming the work ethic is still intact in 5th Year!).  This does not mean students who have not achieved these grades are excluded from studying Physics – it is meant as a guide.

·         A student who likes logic.

·         A student who likes experiments.

 

D.   What careers is Physics a useful subject for?

·         Engineering, Radiography, Physiotherapy, Medicine, Aviation, Geology, Meteorology, the Navy, Oceanography, Electrical and Electronic areas, Astronomy, Architecture, Computers and all Science courses have a Physics module / core etc.

 

E.   Similarities/Differences between Junior and Senior Cycle?

·         The material covered for the Physics part of JC Science is expanded on and some new material is included.

 

F.    How is the subject examined in Leaving Certificate?

·         3 hour written paper.

·         Section A – 4 questions on experiments. Students must complete 3 of these questions.

·         Section B – 8 questions covering theory and experiments. Students must complete 5 questions.

·         A laboratory notebook must be kept by students in which they record the experiments completed in class.

 

G.   What other school subject/s is it linked to at Leaving Certificate?

·         Maths, Chemistry, Geography, History and Applied Maths.

 

H.   What type of skills will it help develop?

·         Problem solving skills

·         Understanding concepts.

 

I.      What do students like about it?

·         Students also enjoy the smaller classes associated with Physics.

·         Students who like hands-on practical work and experiments like this subject.

 

J.    What may students find hard about it?

·         Many apparently complicated things in nature can be understood in terms of relatively simple mathematical relationships. The mathematical equations used in Physics often look far more complicated than they really are. Nevertheless, if you are going to study Physics, you will need to get to grips with a certain amount of Maths. Until students grow in confidence, some students find manipulating formulae to find an answer to a question challenging.

 

BIOLOGY

A.   About:  

Covering the study of life and living things (human, plant and animal).

 

B.   Main topics covered?

·         Unit One: The Study of Life: 1. What is Biology? 2. Nutrition. 3. Ecology

·         Unit Two: The Cell: 1. Cells. 2 Metabolism. 3. Genetics

·         Unit 3: The Organism: 1. Diversity of Organisms. 2. Flowering Plants. 3. The Human Body

 

C.   What type of student would do well at this course?

·         A student who is good at remembering very specific information and in lots of detail.

·         A student who is accurate and neat.

·         A student who is good has a good capacity for learning difficult vocabulary.

 

D.   What careers is Biology a useful subject for?

·         Nursing, Beauty Therapy, Medicine, Dentistry, Veterinary, Food Science, Zoology, Dietetics, Horticulture, Microbiology, Genetics, Nutrition, Environmental Science, Speech & Language Therapy, Occupational Therapy, Sports Science, Education, Animal Care, Agriculture and all Science and Medical careers etc.

 

E.   Similarities/Differences between Junior and Senior Cycle?

·         Built on JC Science.

·         22 practical experiments that are all written up.

·         Theory in far greater detail. Many new topics.

 

F.   How is the subject examined in Leaving Certificate?

·         3 hour written exam.

·         Section A = short questions.

·         Section B = questions based on experiments.

·         Section C = Long questions.

 

G.    What other school subject/s is it linked to at Leaving Certificate?

·         Social & Scientific (small overlap), Geography and Agricultural Science.

 

H.   What type of skills will it help develop?

·         Knowledge is very relevant to everyday life.

·         Students like being able to apply the knowledge that Biology gives them to themselves and their environments.

 

I.   What do students like about it?

·         Students like doing the experiments.

·         Personal interest because a lot of the course focuses on the human body.

·         This subject develops environmental awareness which students like.

 

J.      What may students find hard about it?

·         There is a lot of learning.

·         Difficult vocabulary.

·         Very specific information to learn and remember.

 

GEOGRAPHY

A.   About:

·         Looking at the relationship between human activities and our physical environment.

·         Physical, Socio-Economic, Regional and European/World Geography.

·         Map work

·         Field work and Project work.

 

B.   Main topics covered?

Regional geography: Studying various regions in Ireland, Europe and the world.

·         Physical geography: Studying plate tectonics, rocks and landforms.

·         Field work: Field trip, investigation and writing up of results (20% of LC marks)

·         Geoecology – Soils and Biomes/Ecosystems.

 

C.   What type of student would do well at this course?

·         A student who has an accurate memory.

·         A student who can use different skills – learning off, map work, diagram drawing etc.

·         A student who is good at seeing the connections between things eg. climate-agriculture-industry.

 

D.   What careers is Geography a useful subject for?

·         Civil Engineering, Town planning, Horticulture, Archaeology, Cartography, Tourism, Agriculture, Education, Construction, Aviation, Marine/Navy, Geology etc.

 

E.   Similarities/Differences between Junior and Senior Cycle?

·         Building on JC Geography.

 

F.    How is the subject examined in Leaving Certificate?

·         2 hour and 50 minute LC exam.

·         Field work project write up – 20%.

 

G.   What other school subject/s is it linked to at Leaving Certificate?

·         History and Biology

 

H.   What type of skills will it help develop?

·         Presentation skills.

·         Interpretation of maps, charts, photographs, diagrams.

·         Field work and project skills.

 

I.      What do students like about it?

·         Many parts of the course seem familiar.

·         Very relevant to the world around us.

·         Answers are given in different styles. eg. not all long essay answers.

·         Students who like project work, can gain marks. Final result is based on project and exam.

 

J.    What may students find hard about it?

·         A lot of learning.

*  Some students find the maps/diagrams/charts difficult.

 

HISTORY

A.   About:

·         Europe and the wider world – American and European history.  How the world came to be as it is today.

 

B.   Main topics covered?

·         Research study module. 20% of LC exam. Project form.

·         Irish History. (eg. Ireland and the Union, Politics and Society in N. Ireland etc.)

·         History of Europe and the wider world (Nationalism and state formation in Europe, WW1 and WW2 etc.)

 

C.   What type of student would do well at this course?

·         A student who loves to read, research and write.

·         A student who likes writing essays and is good at them.

·         A student who has a flare for Honours English.

·         A student with a good memory for facts, and remembering details.

·         A student who is good at seeing information in chronological order and can get the overall picture

–           someone who can see the ‘story’ in sequence, and see what links to what.

 

D.   What careers is History a useful subject for?

·         Journalism, Law, Education, Politics, Sociology, Archaeology, Broadcasting, Media, Tourism & Heritage, Business, Voluntary Sector, Post Graduate courses, Civil Service, Foreign Affairs, Museums, Art Galleries, Libraries etc.

 

E.   Similarities/Differences between Junior and Senior Cycle?

·         Much greater depth of information, detail and essay writing skill required at LC level than JC level.

 

F.    How is the subject examined in Leaving Certificate?

·         Research topic = 20% of LC marks.

·         Document questions = 20% of LC marks (rotating topics prepared)

·         3 essay questions in final exam.

 

G.   What other school subject/s is it linked to at Leaving Certificate?

·         Geography and English.

 

H.   What type of skills will it help develop?

·         Research, investigation and reading skills.

·         Writing skills.

·         Ability to summarise and present information.

·         Attention to detail and organisation skills

 

I.      What do students like about it?

·         Interesting class discussions.

·         Relevance to current affairs of the day.

·         Like writing essays.

·         Chance to achieve marks before the LC exam.

 

J.    What may students find hard about it?

·         A lot of material to learn. Students must have a commitment to learn their own essays.

·         Difficulty writing essays.

 

MUSIC

 

A.   About:

·         This course concentrates on Composition, Listening skills and Performance.

 

B.   Main topics covered?

·         Listening: general listening skills in LC set works, Irish music and various musical styles including rock, classical, contemporary, world music etc.

·         Composing: composing melodies and harmonies.

·         Performing: practical performance in 6th Year is worth 50% of total LC marks. (singing / any instrument / music technology).

 

C.   What type of student would do well at this course?

·         Good communication skills.

·         High level of skill and the ability to perform.

·         Good listening skills.

 

D.   What careers is Music a useful subject for?

·         Education, Teaching singing/instruments, Multimedia, Theatre & Drama & Dance, Sound Engineering, Film, Physical Education, Broadcasting,  Media Studies etc.

 

E.   Similarities/Differences between Junior and Senior Cycle?

·         A lot more marks going for practical assessment and performance at LC level.

 

F.    How is the subject examined in Leaving Certificate?

·         50 % = practical (c. Easter time in LC).

·         50% written papers (Listening and Composing).

 

G.   What other school subject/s is it linked to at Leaving Certificate?

·         English, Art and History.

 

H.   What type of skills will it help develop?

·         Group work.

·         Practical and performance skills.

·         Listening skills.

 

I.      What do students like about it?

·         The variety of the topics covered.

·         The fact that you can achieve marks out of 50% for your practical performance.

 

J.    What may students find hard about it?

·         Difficult if a student does not have a musical ear.

·         Difficult if students are not well able to read music and perform in their chosen area.

 

SOCIAL AND SCIENTIFIC

 

A.   About:

·         This subject covers areas such as Food Science & Nutrition, Microbiology, Food Preservation & Processing, Sociology and Consumer Studies.

 

B.   Main topics covered?

·         Written Paper :

–          Food Studies – 45% – Nutrition, Special Diets, Food Processing, Preservation, Microbiology and Legislation.

–          Resource Management and Consumer Studies – 25% – Management, Housing and Consumer Studies.

–          Sociology – 10% – Family, Marriage and Family Law

–          One elective area – 20% – to be decided with the teacher.

·         Food Studies Coursework Journal – 20%.

 

C.   What type of student would do well at this course?

·         A student who has a strong interest in food science and nutrition.

·         A student who has the ability to be accurate and precise with information.

·         A student who can learn large amounts of detailed facts.

·         A student who likes working independently.

 

D.   What careers is Social & Scientific a useful subject for?

·         Nutritionist, Dietician, Food Inspector, Health & Safety, Environmental Health, Microbiology, Chef, Social Work, Education, Nursing, Child Care  etc.

 

E.   Similarities/Differences between Junior and Senior Cycle?

·         There is a big difference between JC Home Economics and LC Social & Scientific.

·         This subject is a lot more Science based than JC Home Economics.

·         There is no craft work / needle work / sewing side to this subject at LC level.

·         There are only 5 cookery based classes in 2 years.

·         Students have to complete a detailed Food Studies Journal based on the 5 cookery practicals. This is submitted at the end of October in 6th Year and is worth 20% of the overall LC exam.

 

F.    How is the subject examined in Leaving Certificate?

·         Journal = 20% of LC exam.

·         LC exam is 2 hours and 30 minutes long. Written paper = 80%.

·         Mixture of short and long questions.

 

G.   What other school subject/s is it linked to at Leaving Certificate?

·         Biology and Business.

 

H.   What type of skills will it help develop?

·         Knowledge that is very relevant to everyday life.

·         Awareness of health, nutrition, sociology and financial matters.

·         Organisational skills.

·         Critical thinking skills are developed.

 

I.      What do students like about it?

·         Students can relate their own lives to a lot of the course.

·         20% of the LC exam is completed by November in 6th Year.

 

J.    What may students find hard about it?

·         A high standard in the Journal writing is expected and needed.

·         Level of detail needed to be learned can prove difficult for some students.

·         Independent research and investigation is required.

 

ART

 

A.   About:

·         Practical work in design and craft, complemented by Art History and Appreciation.

 

B.   Main topics covered?

·         The practical side of this subject divides into 1. Life Sketching 2. Still Life / Imaginative / Abstract Composition and 3. Design or Craft work.

·         The use of photographs, slides, art gallery visits, visuals and reference books are very much a part of the course.

·         Art History = 37.5% of LC exam. The evolution of Art though artists, styles and periods throughout history and the analysis of European and Irish styles and paintings.

 

C.   What type of student would do well at this course?

·         A student who is creative and has artistic ability.

·         A student who likes a more practical subject.

·         A student who is willing to put a lot of work into completing practical assignments.

 

D.   What careers is Art a useful subject for?

·         Advertising, Education, Animation, Architecture, Fashion Design, Graphic Design, Interior Design, Photography, Video and Film Production, Craft work, Printing, Theatre, Beauty Therapy, Make-up Artistry, Technical Drawing, Cosmetics, Floristry, Set Design, Merchandising, Curator, Events Manager etc.

 

E.   Similarities/Differences between Junior and Senior Cycle?

·         You do not undertake a yearlong project as you do in JC. Instead, you have 3 practical exams which are sat in May of LC. You are given the paper one week before these exams to allow you to prepare.

·         Your written paper in June consists of 3 essay type questions accompanied with sketches to illustrate your points. This is the exam for your Art History section.

 

F.    How is the subject examined in Leaving Certificate?

·         3 practical exams = 62.5%

·         1 written paper = 37.5%

 

G.   What other school subject/s is it linked to at Leaving Certificate?

·         English, History and Music.

 

H.   What type of skills will it help develop?

·         Self-expression

·         Artistic skill and portfolio skill preparation.

·         Creativity and attention to detail.

 

I.      What do students like about it?

·         It is largely a practical subject.

·         A large section of the course is skills based, rather than theory based.

·         Finding artists that inspire their own work.

·         The opportunity to focus on areas of Art that they excel in.

 

J.    What may students find hard about it?

·         Sometimes students find the Art History side of the course initially challenging.

·         Students sometimes find the necessary time commitment difficult.

 

GERMAN / FRENCH

 

A.   About:

·         Any student considering taking German or French, or both, must have studied the language to JC level.

·         Developing your level of language and use of same.

·         Increasing your vocabulary and grammar.

·         Improving your ability to communicate orally and in written form.

·         French and German as Leaving Cert subjects aim to bring students closer to fluency in the French and German languages, as well as developing a good knowledge of literature, culture, geography, and national history to provide a context for communication.

 

B.    Areas covered?

·         Oral/speaking (Higher Level – 25% and Ordinary Level – 20% of LC marks).

·          Written

·          Aural/listening (Higher Level – 20% and Ordinary level – 25% of LC marks).

·         Reading / Comprehension

 

C.   What type of student would do well at this course?

·         A student who is attentive to detail.

·         A student who has good communication skills.

 

D.   What careers is a Language a useful subject for?

·         Taking a language or a second language helps your personal development and future career options.

·         Business, Education, Tourism & Travel, Law, Translation, Interpreting, European Studies, Politics, Government, Journalism, Media, Broadcasting etc.

 

E.   Similarities/Differences between Junior and Senior Cycle?

·         The LC courses build and develop on the JC cycle.

 

F.    How is the subject examined in Leaving Certificate? (French and German)

·         Mark Allocation for L.C.

–          Oral / Speaking

–          Listening Comprehension / Tape work

–          Reading Comprehension

–          Writing

 

G.   What other school subject/s is it linked to at Leaving Certificate?

·         English and Irish.

 

H.   What type of skills will it help develop?

·         Students will develop communication skills.

·         Attention to detail and use of language.

·         Self-expression and presentation skills.

 

I.      What do students like about it?

·         Students like being able to use their language/s when travelling.

·         It highlights their awareness of another culture, tradition and way of life.

·         It helps to create links with a German / French speaking country.

·         Students who feel they might like to work abroad like having language skills.

·         Students feel that languages are very relevant to every day life.

·         Students can improve on expressing themselves clearly and confidently.

 

J.    What may students find hard about it?

·         If a student finds it hard to be accurate and precise, languages can be difficult.

·         If a student is not inclined to correct mistakes and try to avoid making them again, languages can cause problems in terms of making progress to a higher grade.